Intended for a course for beginning students in philosophy, mathematics, linguistics, or computer science. Motivation for each formal concept and each step in building a formal logic in terms of formalizing reasoning. Provides a conception of formal logic and not just a collection of results. Summaries at important junctures in the book keep students aware of what they''re doing and where they''re going. Hundreds of exercises that teach. Criteria of formalization with many examples of formalizing ordinary language reasoning in an example-analysis format. A complete course: syntax, semantics, and completeness theorems for classical propositional logic and classical predicate logic, and syntax and semantics for second-order classical predicate logic.