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Production of biofuels for tansport in Colombia : An assessment through sustainability tools


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Production of biofuels for tansport in Colombia : An assessment through sustainability tools
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Bioenergy has emerged as a potentially sustainable alternative to the use of fossil fuels for transport and industrial uses. Developing nations, such as Colombia, can seize the advantages of modernizing rural areas by using cleaner energy and having more economic opportunities with bioenergy initiatives, provided the trade-offs between fiber, food, feed and fuel can be managed. This Thesis examines the bioenergy program now under way in Colombia, where comparative advantages (shared with other tropical countries) in production of sugar cane and palm oil are being built on. While the technologies associated with use of these feedstocks are well known, nevertheless their scaling up in a country like Colombia poses considerable environmenral, social, economic and business challenges. 

The thesis poses two fundamental questions based on current Colombian conditions, namely (1) can the Colombian biofuel industry produce bioethanol and biodiesel under sustainable guidelines; and (2) to what extent is it possible to expand energy crops for biofuels production purposes withour jeopardizing sustainability goals? A sustainability approach based on recognized techniques such as Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) allows for a comprehensive social, economic and environmental analysis of the whole cradle-to-grave progress of the bioenergy value chain. An original LCA analysis is conducted for the Colombian bioenergy sector, with results indicating that considerable savings in GHG emissions are achieved while producing sustainable and competitive bioenergy products. Nevertheless expansion of sugarcane and palm oil crops is possible but constrained by biophysical, legal, ecological and socio-economic conditions, established to safeguard sustainable production. Utilising Geographic Information Systems (GIS) sorne maps were created which clarify the potential for bioenergy expansion in Colombia. The Thesis thereby engages with the bioenergy capabilities of Colombia, and drawing on the literature from other tropical and Latin American countries, provides original estimates of the country's biopotential as well as needed policy settings to bring Colombia to its full capacity.
To sum up, this document argues that sustainable production and use of biofuels is feasible and would meet expected market demands over time. 

Atributos LU

TítuloProduction of biofuels for tansport in Colombia : An assessment through sustainability tools
AutorCarlos Ariel Ramírez Triana
Tabla de Contenido



1 1ntroductory chapter: bioenergy, sustainability and Colombia
1.1 Bioenergy and sustainability: general overview
1.1.1 Bioenergy situation in the global energy scenario
1.1.2 Bioenergy/biofuels production
1.2 Sustainable development and energy 

1.2.1 Biomass production and sustainability

1.3 Life Cycle assessment (LCA) importance

1.4 Colombia: country, energy needs, and bioenergy industry

1.4.1 General Information 

1.4.2 Energy Information

1.4.3 Biofuels in Colombia

1.5 Conclusions and general cornments

2 Biofuels in the world and the latin america (LAC) region
2.1 Policies and regulation for biofuels implementation at a global level

2.1.1 Main regulations 

2.1.2 Trends in biofuel policies and regulation in Latin American and Caribbean countries 

2.1.3 1nternational trade protocols 

2.1.4 Conclusions

3 Environmental problems in Colombia and their relationship with bioenergy production

3.1 Loss ofbiodiversity and ecosystem base

3.1.1 Geographic biodiversity 

3.1.2 Issues related with ecosystem diversity 

3.1.3 Diversity of species and their problems
3.2 Land: degradation, pollution and inappropriate use 
3.2.1 Conflict over land use

3.2.2 Land degradation 

3.2.3 Soil contamination

3.3 Water pollution and inappropriate use

3.3.1 Water supply: related issues 

3.3.2 Water demand: related issues 
3.3.3 Water pollution in Colombia

3.4 Air pollution 

3.4.1 Air pollution in the World and in Colombia

3.4.2 Sources of air pollution and affected sectors in Colombia
3.4.3 Consequences of air pollution in Colombia
3.4.4 Air management in Colombia and their problems
3.5 Climate change and climate variability 

3.5.1 Climate change and climate variability 

3.5.2 Causes and forces of me Climate Change in Colombia and in the World
3.5.3 Effects and consequences of climate change in me World and Colombia
3.5.4 Policy actions to tackle CC in the World and Colombia and their main obstacles
3.6 Deterioration of me environmental quality of me human habitat 

3.7 Conclusions 

4 Biofuel costs and price formation

4.1 Biofuel production costs 

4.1.1 Palm oil biodiesel cost

4.1.2 Sugarcane-based ethanol

4.2 Conclusions

5 Biofuel value chains and contractual relationships

5.1 Feedstock production and commercialization

5.1.1 Land Use in Colombia and its relationship with bioenergy

5.1.2 Production of palm oil

5.1.3 Sugarcane production 

5.2 Agro-industrial transformations of feedstock 

5.2.1 Transformation of palm fruit into crude vegetable oil

5.2.2 Transformation of crude palm oil into biodiesel 
5.2.3 Transformation of sugareane and its apparent consumption 

5.2.4 Transformation of sugareane into ethanol

5.3 Distribution and commercialization
5.4 The consumer seetor 

5.4.1 Projected consumption ofbiodiesel
5.4.2 Projeeted ethanol consumption 

5.4.3 Current biofuel consumption

6 Life cycle analysis - environmental study

6.1 Goal

6.1.1 Methodology of LCA

6.1.2 Scope 

6.1.3 Information for the inventory

6.1.4 Assessment of the environmental impact 

6.1.5 Interpretation

6.1.6 Limitations of the study

6.2 Inventory analysis

6.2.1 Sugarcane crop 

6.2.2 Sugareane proeessing plant (ingenio) and ethanol production 

6.2.3 Palm oil extraction and produetion of biodiesel 

6.2.4 Transport to the service station 

6.2.5 Transport of palm oil Biodiesel to California 

6.2.6 Use of fuls in vehicles 

6.2.7 Fossil fuels 

6.2.8 Electricity production
6.3 Impaets Evaluation 
6.3.1 Fossil fuels 

6.3.2 Sugareane-based ethanol 
6.3.3 Palm oil biodiesel 

6.3.4 Indirect land use ehanges (iLUC)

6.3.5 Blending options and exports to California
6.3.6 Comparison of Colombian biofuels with some other biofuels 

6.4 Discussion and conclusions

6.4.1 Sugareane-based ethanol

6.4.2 Palm oil biodiesel 

6.4.3 Final conclusions

7.Biofuel value chains and contractual relationships
7.1 Aim of the study 

7.2 Methodology

7.2.1 Conceptual framework

7.2.2 Scope

7.2.3 Limitations of this study 

7.3 Biophysical aptitude 

7.3.1 Climatic factors 

7.3.2 Agronomic factors 

7.3.3 Agronomic suitability

7.3.4 Biophysical aptitude 

7.3.5 Potential productivity

7.4 Legal restrictions 

7.5 Ecologic limitations 

7.5.1 Greenhouse gases (GHG's) emissions 

7.5.2 Water shortage 

7.5.3 Biodiversity 

7.6 Socio-economic criteria 

7.6.1 Access to processing facilities 

7.6.2 Access to markets

7.6.3 Access to road network 

7.6.4 Safety

7.6.5 Food security 
7.7 Discussion and final remarks 

7.7.1 Palm oil 

7.7.2 Sugar cane

7.7.3 Srakeholders' engagement: contrast between the expansión potential in this study and former plans
7.7.4 Conclusion

8 General conclusions

9 Appendix

9.1 Box 1. Cassava-based ethanol innovative project
9.2 Box 2. US-Colombia biofuels trade through a FTA: A temporarily obstructed possibility 

9.3 Box 3. Eviction processes: Recenr history in Colombia

9.4 Endpoint and midpoint indicators 

9.5 Wasteson land (sugarcane) 

9.6 Description of the stages in the sugar production process in the sugar mill (ingenio) 

9.7 Transportation distan ces per every 100 tons of sugarcane

9.8 Ernissions per 1 kg of bagasse combustion and per every 100 tons of sugarcane (kg unless indicated otherwise)

9.9 Description of the erhanol manufacture process

9.10 Water treatment mass balance

9.11 Mass Balance for compost stage

9.12 Agrochemicals employed in different areas of the palm oil crop (kg/kg FFB) 

9.13 Description of the Paim oil process

9.14 Air emissions as product of the combustion of 1 MJ of fiber, 1 MJ of shells per each 100 tons of FFB (kg unless indicated otherwise) 

9.15 Waste waters treatment 

9.16 Renault 

9.17 Surface extension of the carbon zones (km2), types of land use by vegetation zones in Colombia 
9.18 Map of natural potential vegetation 
9.19 Prospects ofbiofuels production in Colombia beyond first generation biofuels


Año de Edición2017
Núm. Páginas432
Peso (Físico)910
Tamaño (Físico)17 x 24 cm
Acabado (Físico)Tapa rustica

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